Laser processing uses the energy of the light to reach a very high energy density at the focal point after being focused by the lens, and is processed by the photothermal effect. Laser processing does not require tools, processing speed, surface deformation, can process a variety of materials.
The laser beam is used to perform various processing on the material, such as drilling, cutting, dicing, welding, heat treatment, and the like. Some substances with metastable energy levels absorb light energy under the excitation of external photons, so that the number of high-level atoms is greater than the number of low-level atoms—the number of particles is reversed. If there is a beam of light, photon The energy is equal to the difference between the two energy. At this time, stimulated radiation will be generated and a large amount of light energy will be output.
Laser technology is an integrated technology involving many disciplines such as optics, mechanics, electricity, materials, and testing. Traditionally, its scope of research can generally be divided into the following 9 aspects:
1. Laser processing system. Including lasers, light guide systems, processing machines, control systems, and inspection systems;
2, laser processing technology. Including welding, surface treatment, drilling, marking, fine-tuning and other processing technology;
3, laser welding: auto body thick plate, auto parts, lithium batteries, heart pacemakers, sealed relays and other sealing devices and a variety of devices that do not allow welding pollution and deformation. The lasers used are YAG lasers, CO2 lasers and semiconductor pumped lasers;
4, laser cutting: automotive industry, computers, electrical chassis, wood knife mold, a variety of metal parts and special materials, cutting, circular saw blades, acrylic, spring washers, copper components less than 2mm for electronic components, Some metal stencils, steel pipes, tinplates, lead-plated steel plates, phosphor bronze, electric wood boards, thin aluminum alloys, quartz glass, silicone rubber, alumina ceramic sheets of 1 mm or less, titanium alloys used in the aerospace industry, and so on. Uses lasers with YAG lasers and CO2 lasers;
5, astronomy laser pointer marking: in a variety of materials and almost all industries have been widely used, the use of lasers are YAG lasers, CO2 lasers and semiconductor pumped lasers;
6, laser drilling: laser drilling is mainly used in aerospace, automotive manufacturing, electronic instrumentation, chemical and other industries. With the rapid development of laser drilling, the average output power of YAG laser for main body punching has been increased from 400W to 800W to 1000W. The application of domestic mature laser drilling is in the production of synthetic diamond and natural diamond wire drawing dies, clocks and meters, jewel bearings, aircraft blades, multilayer printed circuit boards and other industries. Most of the lasers used are YAG lasers and CO2 lasers. There are also excimer lasers, isotope lasers and semiconductor pumped lasers.
7, laser heat treatment: widely used in the automotive industry, such as cylinder liners, crankshafts, piston rings, commutators, gears and other parts of the heat treatment, while also widely used in the aerospace, machine tool industry and other machinery industries. Most of the lasers used are YAG lasers and CO2 lasers.
8, laser rapid prototyping: The laser processing technology and computer numerical control technology and flexible manufacturing technology combined and formed for the mold and model industry. Most of the lasers used are mainly YAG lasers and CO2 lasers;
9, laser coating: widely used in the aerospace, mold and electromechanical industries. Most of the lasers used are high-power YAG lasers and CO2 lasers.
Laser cutting is the use of a focused high-power density laser beam to irradiate the workpiece, so that the irradiated material is quickly melted, vaporized, ablated or reached the ignition point. At the same time, the molten material is blown away with the help of the high speed air flow with the coaxial beam, thus cutting the workpiece. Most laser cutting machines are operated by numerical control programs or made into cutting robots. Laser cutting, as a precision processing method, can cut almost all materials, including two-dimensional cutting or three-dimensional cutting of thin metal plates.