Q&A Laser Pointer List
Laser pointer is the main symbol of the development of science and technology in the 20th century and one of the pillars of optoelectronic technology in modern information society. From laser applications in aerospace to laser pen processing products that are ubiquitous, we all enjoy the little changes that laser science and technology bring to our lives.
Lidar scanner. This is a new low-end device in the fixed 3D laser pointer scanning market. The sensor is a non-traditional lidar. It proposes a revolutionary solution for real-time machine navigation. The latest discoveries of lidar technology widely used in digital mapping regions also contribute to the growth of this technology. In addition, as its technical advantages in the application field appear, the automated lidar market is growing rapidly. For these reasons, the lidar market is expected to grow substantially in the near future.
Laser detection and measurement. More widely known as LiDAR (from the same term RADAR). It is a sensing technology that uses laser pointer pulses to measure the distance to the ground. Using this technology can obtain three-dimensional information of the surface shape and surface features. Lidar technology helps professional cartographers and scientists to be more precise. Accurately and flexibly measure and understand natural and artificial environments. Earlier, lidar was limited to government and military applications. With the advancement of technology and the reduction of manufacturing cost of lidar, it has widely penetrated into industrial and commercial fields. The main application areas of lidar technology include: mining, forestry, archaeology, geology, seismology, topographic surveying and power corridor maps. In addition, laser pointer detection and measurement also include applications in the field of civil engineering. Including transportation, city maps and planning. Infrastructure projects and road planning, etc.
As of April 13, 2020. The number of confirmed cases of new coronary pneumonia worldwide has exceeded 1.85 million. To diagnose or rule out whether a patient is infected with the new coronavirus requires scientific means. In the face of the global epidemic, researchers from various countries continue to develop more efficient diagnosis and treatment methods. Recently, researchers at Bar Ilan University (BIU) in Israel developed a method for remote diagnosis of coronavirus using laser pointer beams. This is a kind of place even tens of meters away. A device that can remotely sense changes in tissue motility caused by diseases.
Utilize the technology accumulation of nearly 20 years in the MEMS field. He has a lot of design and process experience in sensors, biological MEMS, optical MEMS and radio frequency MEMS. The patterning process of micro-nano processing is mainly divided into two technologies: pattern transfer and direct processing. The pattern transfer technology includes three parts: thin film deposition, pattern imaging, and pattern transfer. The laser pointer beam etching technology of direct processing has direct writing capability. The avoiding multi-step process of pattern transfer, by controlling the focused high-energy laser (shortwave/pulse) beam to directly produce fine structures on the etching material. With micron/sub-micron film etching processing accuracy, it is suitable for a variety of materials. Realize the production of three-dimensional microstructures.
This technology is not new. During the Apollo era, astronauts installed five reflectors on the surface of the moon. Each reflector contains at least 100 mirrors. It can reflect in any direction. For example, by reflecting the light on these panels. Scientists have been able to understand that the moon is moving away from the earth at a rate of about 1.5 inches per year. Planetary scientists at the Goddard Space Flight Center said: Now that we have collected 50 years of data. We can see some trends. Without these 50 years of accumulation, we would not be able to see this return signal. The science of laser pointer ranging is a long game.
Since 2009. NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbits the moon a dozen times a day. There are six high-tech instruments on the lunar survey orbiter. These 6 high-tech instruments not only helped scientists draw a detailed map of the moon. And let them know more about the radiation and temperature on the lunar surface. But in fact, the lunar reconnaissance orbiter also carries a fairly simple instrument. A book-sized reflector.
The particularity of the laser pointer experiment lies in a newly developed imaging technology. It is particularly sensitive to the special changes observed in this phase transition. The images taken by Göttingen physicists are entirely a collection of electrons scattered by crystal fluctuations. Their cutting-edge methods allow researchers to gain fundamental insights into light-induced structural changes. The leader of nano optics and ultrafast dynamics at the University of Göttingen and the director and professor of MPI of Biophysical Chemistry. We have been able to transfer our imaging technology to other crystal structures. In this way. We have not only answered basic questions in solid-state physics. It also opens up new prospects for optical switch materials in smart nanoelectronics in the future.
The laser pointer beam can be used to change the properties of materials in an extremely precise way. This principle has been widely used in technologies such as rewritable DVDs. However, the basic process is generally carried out at such an unimaginable speed and such a small scale that it has not been directly observed so far. Researchers from the University of Göttingen and the Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (MPI) in Göttingen have now successfully photographed the laser pointer transformation process of a crystal structure with nanometer resolution and slow motion in an electron microscope for the first time. The results have been published in the "Science" magazine.
As part of a clinical trial. After receiving laser pointer treatment, patients will be treated with the powerful chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. This drug is considered the least likely to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The primary lesion was ovarian cancer, and he is currently undergoing treatment for recurrent glioma. This tumor is the most difficult type of brain tumor to treat. Most patients diagnosed with this type of brain tumor survive only 15 months, according to statistics from the American Cancer Society. This clinical trial is still in progress. However, this preliminary result is very promising.
Neurosurgeons use lasers to treat brain tumors. It was found that the technology broke through the blood-brain barrier. This research result provides new treatment options for patients with these fatal diseases. The blood-brain barrier is a natural "safety system". It can prevent the poison in the blood from entering the brain, and at the same time, it cuts off potentially therapeutic drugs from entering the brain, such as chemotherapy. Said a professor of neurosurgery at Washington University in St. Louis. We were able to make the brain blood membrane barrier disintegrate about 4 weeks after laser pointer treatment.
3D lidar is such a kind of born from functional innovation. Started to enter the commercial development of laser pointer sensors. Let's take lidar as an example to sort out the typical development trend of sensors. R&D trend 1: Technology is extended to higher levels. The emergence of 3D lidar is to meet the needs of the system for real-time spatial perception. Autonomous mobile robots such as driverless cars and unmanned aerial vehicles are used for the purpose of spatial recognition, autonomous obstacle avoidance, and route planning. A sensor is needed to scan the surrounding environment in real time. In order to know the distance information of surrounding obstacles and roads, 3D Lidar came into being.
Tactile sensation can be further divided into touch sensation, pressure sensation, and slip sensation in smart equipment. Such sensors include optical tactile sensors and piezoresistive array tactile sensors. Slip sensor, etc., in which slip sensor is a necessary condition to realize the robot's grasping function. In addition to the above five human sensations, some physical sensors also have a sensation beyond the human body. For example, a biosensor can measure blood pressure, body temperature, etc. Environmental sensors can measure temperature and humidity, air dust particle content, ultraviolet light intensity and so on. These sensors beyond human senses are now matched by wearable devices. Wearable devices are thus given the function of expanding human senses.
Smart sensors allow smart equipment to have a variety of "feel" sensors as the only autonomous input for smart equipment. It is equivalent to various sensory organs of intelligent equipment and robots. The perception of smart laser pointer equipment to the external environment is mainly visual. Position, speed, force, touch, etc. Vision is the most commonly used input system for intelligent equipment, and can be divided into two categories: one is intuitive vision, the data type is a picture composed of pixels, and a typical application is machine vision. Object recognition, etc. Such sensors include high-speed cameras and video cameras. The second is environmental model-based vision. The data type is a spatial model composed of point cloud data. A typical application is spatial modeling. Such sensors include 3D lidar and laser scanners.
The sensor laser pointer is an important hardware for the device to feel the external environment. Determines the ability of the equipment to interact with the external environment. It is the hardware foundation of equipment intelligence. Especially in many smart devices. The sensor determines the core capability of the device. A typical sensor is composed of sensitive components, conversion components and conditioning circuits. Sensitive components are used to directly feel the measurement, and conversion components are used to convert into electrical parameters. Sensors have a wide range of uses and types. According to the measurement object, the sensors can be divided into sensors that detect light, radiation, acoustic signals, magnetic signals, force, position information, temperature, humidity, and solution flow rate. Each sensor that detects the same object has multiple applications and different implementation paths.
Multiple sensors are used in combination, and the horizontal width of multiple functions is combined to meet the multiple types of systems. Multi-level input and output requirements. An innovative combination of various types of laser pointer sensors. Form multiple senses of smart equipment, and form intelligent feedback based on multiple senses. Such as the emotional interactive robot Pepper and other escort and early education robots. The combination of multiple senses forms an emotional perception system such as vision, position, and hearing. Then through the internal artificial intelligence algorithm to form intelligent feedback.
We can know that the laser pointer technical characteristics of lidar are gradually meeting the industrialization needs of the driverless field. After removing the redundant hardware configuration in the test phase. The cost is expected to be greatly reduced. Sensor application trend: similar combination, multiple combinations, scene innovation. The importance of sensors as the only input for intelligent equipment other than manual setting of parameters is self-evident. The sensor's ability to perceive the external environment determines the accuracy and richness of information input for smart equipment. Innovation for the effective application of sensors. It is often the basis for functional innovation of smart equipment. There are three main trends in the innovative application of smart equipment to sensors.
The unmanned driving perception system led by 3D lidar is the mainstream laser pointer technology route adopted in the field of unmanned driving today. But the cost of 3D lidar has always been the pain point of this technical route. Take the product of Velodyne, the most well-known company for producing 3D lidar, as an example. The prices of the three products are 80,000 U.S. dollars, 20,000 U.S. dollars, and 8,000 U.S. dollars according to the highest performance. In the R&D and testing phase of driverless cars, scientific research institutions including Google and Baidu have been using the $80,000 version for testing. The total cost of Google's driverless cars is approximately more than $300,000. The 64-line 3D lidar HDL-64 accounts for 25% of the vehicle cost.
From May 17th to 20th, the 8th International Police Equipment Expo was held. The exhibition focused on displaying all kinds of anti-terrorism and anti-riot guns. Reconnaissance vehicles and other domestic weapons and equipment. Among them, the high-precision sniper rifle, anti-riot shotgun, and laser pointer dazzling gun launched by the Eagle Group have attracted attention. "First hit, one shot to kill the enemy" is the highest requirement for a sniper. In order to practice this "hard work", in addition to the good quality of the sniper, a good gun is required. XY7.62mm high precision The sniper rifle has a total length of 1200mm and a gun weight of 6.8kg. It can accurately kill effective targets within 800 meters. This sniper rifle is designed and selected closely to the actual combat. It is equipped with a silencer and an adjustable cheek plate that can perform anti-terrorism and stability maintenance. Anti-pirate hijacking and other tasks at sea. At the same time, the XY7.62mm high-precision sniper rifle has good serviceability and low failure rate. It has a life of up to 10,000 rounds and is easy to maintain.
Utilize the characteristics of laser high energy, high frequency and high power. The high energy is instantly deposited in a small area. Using high temperature to burn the oxide layer is also called laser pointer cleaning. The physical principle can be summarized as follows: The light beam emitted by the laser is absorbed by the contamination layer to be treated. The absorption of large energy forms a rapidly expanding plasma, generating shock waves. The shock wave turns the pollutants into fragments and is removed. The light pulse width must be short enough. Avoid heat accumulation to damage the surface to be treated. If the contamination layer is relatively thick, multiple pulses are required for cleaning. The number of pulses required to clean the surface depends on the degree of surface contamination.
The chemical oxygen iodine laser is a new concept weapon. The technology is forward-looking. It has great development potential and a series of combat advantages. Mainly as follows: fast. Since the laser pointer travels at the speed of light and the speed is very fast, the time from the laser exit to the target can be ignored, and battle time is gained. Therefore, airborne laser weapons are very suitable for intercepting fast-moving, highly maneuverable or suddenly appearing targets. fast reaction. The quality of the beam emitted by laser weapons is close to zero. There is almost no recoil when shooting. The laser emission direction can be quickly changed by controlling the mirror. It can strike multiple targets in different directions in a short time.
Although the Navy hopes to get low prices. Efficient ship-based missile defense system. But since the 2011 financial year. Its R&D expenditure on solid-state lasers has been relatively stable. At its peak, it reached approximately US$400 million. The overall budget of the laser project has now dropped to 350 million US dollars. The use of laser pointer and other directed energy weapons can reverse this trend, which is beneficial to the military because the cost of launching such weapons is very low and the number of launches is almost unlimited, said Ronald O'Rourke, an expert on naval affairs in Congress. The navy uses expensive weapons and ammunition to strike back at targets—they are incoming missiles, small assault boats, and coastal defense systems—even if these targets are destroyed, it will only cost the enemy very little. "Ronald O'Rourke said at the Marshall Institute seminar. This is not an affordable game. If you need to continue this game through a lot of fighting, you will soon find yourself in this economic equation. The downside.
"National Defense" magazine published an article by Dan Parsons. Briefly introduced the situation that the military (mainly the navy) is studying the use of various low-cost laser pointer to deal with enemy missiles and other weapons. In order to maintain technological superiority, the military has invested more money in this area than any other country’s military, but expensive high-tech defense systems. It is increasingly being challenged by the proliferation of relatively cheap but effective weapons such as cruise missiles and drones. Military experts agree that if there are no more effective and cost-effective measures to deal with enemy attack ammunition. In future conflicts, they may lose their combat advantages with opponents who use inexpensive ammunition.
The photon lifetime is very short, and it is generally an instantaneous effect. However, secondary damage to the laser pointer cannot be ruled out. Just like the sun may induce skin cancer, short-wavelength laser irradiation may have a similar effect for a long time, but this situation has not been reported. While collecting or playing with the laser sword, how should we safely control it? Just like football fans irradiating players with laser pointers, ordinary lasers only cause discomfort. However, high power will cause serious damage to the eyes, and different types of professional goggles should be equipped according to different wavelengths of the laser. Be sure to avoid direct laser exposure to the eyes. At the same time, since the laser can ignite the paper, the corresponding fire prevention measures must be adequate.
These laser swords are generally composed of switches and laser diodes. Laser component composition. Only need to purchase the matching rechargeable battery for "energy replenishment" to meet the use of laser pointer. Although the number of larger power lightsaber products is limited, its sales have exceeded the expectations of these merchants. I did not expect that the high-power laser sword can bring a lot of benefits to the store. After all, its price is higher. Of course, most of the customers who buy such laser swords are still Star Wars fans. For those substances that have little absorption of photons, it is easier to throw a stone than to destroy it with a laser. If you consider actual combat, you don’t have to destroy the target to win. Using a laser pointer or a strong light to attack the opponent’s eyes makes them blind. This strategy is more practical than killing the opponent directly.
According to reports, an American "Star Wars" fan has successfully made a high-power laser sword. The sword can cut paper and light matches as easily as a laser pointer. In the movie "Star Wars", the laser sword is the main weapon of the Jedi Knights. Its super energy and gorgeous effects have made countless star wars fans dream of it. As a student, Shi-Zheng is one of the countless fans of Star Wars. When she mentioned that someone successfully made a laser sword, she couldn't hide her excitement. She really wanted to own a laser sword! Although we do not need to use a lightsaber as a weapon for maintaining peace, it is a special complex to have it. It can be regarded as the dream of childhood. Although there are examples of successful laser swords. There are also many crazy fans who want to have a laser sword. So, will the laser sword affect the human body?
A fan used the laser pointer to illuminate the referee and away team player in the Luneng and Guoan Super League matches. Disturb the normal progress of the game. The fan borrowed a laser flashlight from his friend before watching the game. At 6 pm on the 30th, the fan illegally carried a laser flashlight into the Olympic Sports Center Stadium and found a seat after entering the entrance. At 7 pm, he took out a laser flashlight from his pocket to illuminate the away team fans for more than 20 minutes. At 8 pm, the fan once again took out a laser flashlight to illuminate the away team fans, and then irradiated the referee and the away team goalkeeper. After more than 10 minutes of exposure, the fan was found by the police on duty at the scene. Subsequently, the police caught up with the stands and captured them.
Laser flashlights can only be used where necessary in life. From this point of view, the laser energy is not very large. But its energy density is great. Because its scope of action is very small, there is generally only one point. A large amount of energy is gathered in a short time, and it can be understood as a weapon. It is self-evident how powerful it has. The high-power laser pointer are all above 10 milliwatts. The laser flashlights sold online have basically reached 250 milliwatts. Obviously, they have caused the above three to four levels of damage. Specifically, when the laser light emitted by the laser flashlight reaches the sensitive part of the human retina, it will cause damage to the eyes. In addition, after looking at the dazzling beam for a long time. It can also affect the optic nerve and central nervous system, causing dizziness and even nausea. Therefore, never use a laser beam to illuminate another person's face or eyes. Nor can mirrors and other objects reflect laser light.
Stimulated radiation, laser pointer: Einstein pointed out in theory in 1917. In addition to spontaneous emission, particles at high energy level E2 can also transition to lower energy levels in another way. He pointed out that when a photon with a frequency ν=(E2-E1)/h is incident, it will also cause particles with a certain probability. Rapidly transition from energy level E2 to energy level E1. Simultaneously radiating a photon with the same frequency, phase, polarization, and propagation direction as the external photon is called stimulated radiation. It can be imagined that if a large number of atoms are at the high energy level E2 when a photon with a frequency ν=(E2-E1)/h is incident, the atoms on E2 are excited to produce stimulated radiation, and two photons with the same characteristics are obtained. These two photons then excite the atoms at the E2 energy level, which in turn produce stimulated radiation. Four photons with the same characteristics can be obtained. This means that the original optical signal is amplified. The light generated and amplified during the stimulated radiation is laser light.
The interaction of light and matter. The laser pointer is actually derived from the interaction of light and matter. The microscopic particles that make up the matter absorb or radiate photons. At the same time, they change their own movement. Microscopic particles have a specific set of energy levels (usually these energy levels are discrete). At any moment the particles can only be at a level corresponding to a certain energy level. In recent years, 593.5nm yellow-orange laser flashlights have also begun to appear. Divided by wavelength, it can be divided into red light 635-650nm, green light 532nm, orange light 593.5nm, blue-violet 405-445nm (445nm already belongs to near blue light), pure blue light 473nm and invisible infrared 808nm, 980nm, 1064nm. In the way of light output, it can be divided into LD direct light output, such as 650nm, 635nm, 445nm. The crystal pumps infrared light, typically 532nm green light. 593.5 yellow light. If you understand the source of the laser pointer, you will understand the power of the laser flashlight.
This is a super white light flashlight, but the laser flashlight is more powerful than this. In fact, the official name of the laser flashlight is the laser pointer. That is to say, the laser flashlight is named because it looks like a flashlight. It is actually a kind of laser pointer. It has a similar function as a laser pointer and a star pen, but it is generally larger and usually has a higher power. The official name of the laser flashlight is "laser pointer", which is different from the general laser pointer and pointer pen because of its shell. Laser flashlights are similar to ordinary flashlights, they are larger and usually have a higher power. It is a pen-shaped transmitter designed to make the visible laser portable, easy to hold, and processed by a laser module (diode). Common laser pointers include red light (650-660nm), green light (532nm), blue light (445-450nm), and blue-violet light (405nm).