In the cylinder, a total reflection mirror is placed on one end, and the other half mirror is placed on the other end. A high-intensity lamp rotates around the ruby cylinder to provide a flash of white light that triggers the action of the laser pointer. The green and blue wavelengths in flash lamps excite electrons in atoms to higher energy levels. After returning to the normal state, the electron will emit its characteristic ruby red light. The mirror reflects some light back and forth inside the ruby crystal, stimulating other excited chromium atoms to produce more red light, until the light pulse accumulates to high power and exhausts the energy stored in the crystal. The high-voltage current makes the quartz flash lamp emit a strong burst of light, which excites some atoms in the ruby crystal to higher energy levels.
At certain energy levels, some atoms emit light particles called photons. First, photons are emitted in all directions. The photon from one atom excites the photon emission from another atom, and the light intensity is rapidly amplified. The mirrors at both ends reflect photons back and forth, continuing the process of stimulated emission and amplification. One end of the photon exits through a partially silvered mirror. This is laser engraver.
Physicists have been working for generations to control shorter and shorter wavelengths. After radio (meters) and radar (centimeters, then millimeters), the logical next step will be far-infrared waves. Masers has always been useful, and it is more useful for scientific research than for military or industrial applications. Only a few scientists think that infrared laser masers may be important and think about how to make this method. Infrared cannot be manipulated like radar, and is actually difficult to manage at all.
Towns pondered these questions deeply. One day in 1957, he studied the equation of amplified radiation, and he realized that short waves are more likely to occur than far infrared waves. He can span the far-infrared region and use familiar techniques for processing ordinary light instead. Townes had a discussion with his colleague, friend and brother-in-law, Arthur Schawlow.
The whole purpose of the invention of the laser is to find the right atomic species and add mirrors to help along the stimulated radiation. The acronym blue laser pointer stands for light amplification (by using Einstein's ideas).