Laser Precision Machining

At present, the traditional manufacturing industry is facing a deep transformation and upgrading. High-end precision processing with high added value and high technical barriers is one of the important directions. With the increasing demand for high precision processing, the related precision processing technology also develops rapidly, among which laser technology has gained more and more recognition in the market. Laser processing technology is divided into three levels according to the size of processing materials and the precision requirement of processing: laser processing technology for large-scale parts mainly consisting of medium and thick plates, the processing accuracy is generally in the millimeter or sub-millimeter level; precision laser processing technology mainly consisting of thin plates, its processing accuracy is generally in the ten micron level; laser micro-processing technology mainly consisting of thin films with thickness below 100 micron level; and laser micro-processing technology mainly consisting of thin films with thickness below 100 micron level. Technology, its processing accuracy is generally less than 10 microns or even sub-microns. Laser precision machining can be divided into four types of applications: precision cutting, precision welding, precision drilling and surface treatment. Under the current technological development and market environment, the application of laser cutting and welding is more popular, and 3C electronic and new energy battery are the most widely used fields.

Laser precision cutting uses a pulsed laser beam to focus on the surface of a machined object to form a high-energy-density spot that melts or vaporizes the material being processed at an instant. The processing characteristic is fast speed, the slit is smooth and flat, generally no subsequent processing is needed; the cutting heat affected zone is small, and the sheet deformation is small: the processing precision is high, the repeatability is good, and the material surface is not damaged. Compared with high-power laser cutting, precision cutting generally uses nanosecond and picosecond lasers to focus on ultra-fine space, while having extremely high peak power and extremely short laser pulses. The surrounding materials in the space range are affected, thus achieving the "superfine" of the processing. Laser precision cutting technology has unparalleled advantages in the production process of mobile phone screen cutting, fingerprint identification film, LED invisible dicing, etc., which require high precision.

Laser precision welding is to radiate a high-intensity laser beam onto the working area of ​​the processed product. Through the interaction between the laser and the material, the welded area is quickly formed into a multi-density heat source area, and the heat is cooled by the soldered area. Crystallization forms a consolidated weld or weld. It is characterized by the absence of electrodes and filler materials and is non-contact soldering. It can weld high melting point refractory metals or materials of different thicknesses. In the field of new energy batteries, with the promotion of new energy vehicles, the demand for power batteries continues to increase. As the welding standard in the field of power battery, laser welding is widely used in the ear welding of the front section, the welding of the bottom cover, the top cover and the sealing nail in the middle section, the battery connecting piece in the rear stage, and the negative sealing welding. In the 3C field, all kinds of mobile phone modules, midplane cover, etc. are inseparable from laser precision welding technology.

Laser precision drilling is to reduce the diameter of laser spot to micron level, so as to obtain high laser power density. Laser drilling can be carried out in almost any material. Its characteristics are that it can punch holes on materials with high hardness, brittle texture or soft texture, small aperture, fast processing speed and high efficiency. Laser drilling is widely used in PCB industry. Compared with traditional PCB drilling technology, laser drilling not only has faster processing speed, but also can drill small holes, micro holes and invisible holes which traditional equipment can not achieve. On the surface of electronic products, it can also be used to drill holes in mobile phone speakers, microphones and other glass.

Laser surface treatment is the surface treatment of metals by using high power density laser beam. It can change the surface characteristics of metals by phase transformation hardening, surface amorphous, surface alloying or chemical reaction of vaporization or color change of surface materials. Its characteristics are that it does not need to use additional materials, only changes the structure of the surface layer of the treated materials, and the processed parts have minimal deformation, which is suitable for surface marking and high-precision parts processing. Laser surface treatment can be divided into two categories according to whether the composition of the substrate is changed or not. Applications that do not change the composition of the substrate include laser quenching (phase transformation hardening), laser cleaning, laser shock hardening and laser polarization. Applications that change the composition of the substrate include laser cladding, laser plating, laser alloying and laser vapor deposition.

Several types of linear shaft transmission methods commonly used in CNC laser cutting machines include ball screws, rack and pinion, and linear motors. Ball screw drive is commonly used in medium and low speed, small stroke CNC machine tools; gear rack and pinion drive is widely used, can achieve high speed, large stroke; linear motor is mostly used in high speed, high acceleration, CNC machine with special structure. In addition, the currently used rack and pinion is divided into two types: straight teeth and helical teeth. Metal laser cutting machine cutting high reflective materials is an important problem for many metal laser cutting machine manufacturers. Highly reflective metal materials have long been difficult materials for metal laser cutting machines, including copper, aluminum, gold, etc. These materials are also common materials in our daily processing.

When using a metal laser cutting machine, there is no need to worry about whether or not the material can be cut. It is important to pay attention to the processing effect, and it is best to use nitrogen as the auxiliary gas. When the thickness of the metallic copper reaches 2 MM, if it is impossible to process using only nitrogen, it is necessary to add oxygen and oxidize it to enable cutting. Metal laser cutting machine processing is a technical activity. If you want to cut copper material to achieve better results, the technical requirements of the operator are also very high. Only good technology and good method can make copper material processing more simple.

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